Laser Cutting is a modern technology that is used to cut metals or any other material with perfection. To cut material, a focused beam of the laser is used for melting the material where it needs to be cut. To create a kerf the molten material is ejected to through a co-axial gas jet. To produce a continuous cut, one has to move either the laser beam or the workpiece under the CNC control.
The Characteristics Of Laser Cutting Are As Follows:
- Laser cutting can help to cut carbon manganese steels which are up to 20mm thick.
- The technique can be used to cut stainless steels which are up to 12 mm thick.
- Brass and titanium can easily be cut with the help of laser cutting.
- Laser cutting can help to reduce aluminum up to 10 mm thick.
- With the help of laser cutting, one can cut wood, thermoplastics and a variety of other non-metals.
Different Types of Laser Cutting
There are three groups into which laser cutting is classified:
- Fusion cutting: Fusion cutting is usually done with the help of inert gas. Mostly nitrogen is used as the inert gas. Nitrogen is used in the procedure because the nitrogen gas doesn’t come into reaction with the molten material exothermically and therefore, there is no energy input.
- Flame cutting: In this kind of laser cutting, the assist gas which is used is oxygen. Oxygen not only exerts mechanical force on molten material, but it also creates an exothermic reaction that helps to increase the input of energy to the procedure.
- Remote cutting: In this kind of laser cutting, the only high-intensity laser beam is used to partially evaporate the material. This makes it easy to cut the thin sheets without the help of an assist gas.
Some of The Benefits of Laser Cutting Are As Follows:
- The laser makes a precise and perfect cut. One doesn’t need to spend extra time taking care of the finishing.
- It is highly flexible. Be it a simple cut or a complex cut both can be done with super ease.
- The technique doesn’t require direct contact; therefore, there are no chances of surface blemishes.
- The amount of heat input is low.
- Almost all the metals can easily be cut with the help of laser cutting.
Lasers That Are Used For Cutting Metal Sheets
These days, most of the industrial metal sheets are cut with the help of lasers. These lasers are mainly of two types: fiber and CO2.
- Fiber lasers: They belong to the family called “solid-state lasers”. In this kind of lasers, the beam is produced by a medium which is solid. A number of laser diodes produce the beam. To amplify the energy of the laser is transmitted through an optical fiber. The beam, after being amplified, exits the optical fiber and then collimated and focused on the material which is to be cut.
- CO2 lasers: In this laser, the laser is generated with the help of a mixture of gas which consists of CO2, nitrogen and helium. This kind of laser is pumped electrically with the help of an electric discharge. A CO2 laser can efficiently cut materials which are thicker than 5mm. They are much more efficient as compared to fiber lasers which have the same power.
Laser cutting is a technique which is very easy, fuss-free and efficient. Due to all these advantages over traditional and other cutting techniques, laser cutting technique is gaining immense popularity.